会话解决


发展音乐素养 
与会话解决:

听觉艺术的听觉方法

约翰·费拉本德

 

什么是“True Music Literacy?”

Jason, a young undergraduate 音乐 student, answered an ad for part time employment at the Russian Embassy.  Besides the telephone number, the only other information in the ad read “比平均工资更好;有计算机键盘技能者优先。”当他到达面试时,他被告知要同时到达另外三十个希望中。短暂的等待后,整个团队被带到一个大房间里,他们每个人都坐在一台计算机终端上,文件放在一边。小组被指示,作为访谈的一部分,他们将文件的前五页键入计算机,然后点击“control”当他们完成每一页时都按一下按钮。他们将有十分钟的时间。打字开始,杰森’令人沮丧的是,他发现要打字的文件是俄文。他决定尽力而为,但对工作的希望很快消失了。  侧身“E”.  他搜索了键盘。最终找到了这封信,他触摸了键。  用直线穿过 它。  再次搜寻导致最终按下了按键。 向后“R”. 打猎。击中。因此,Jason偶尔会记住其中一个外国字母的位置。“时间!请停止输入并返回等候区。您将一次被打回一个简短的面试中。”杰森(Jason)和其他人一起退出了。当杰森’他的名字叫他回到了计算机室,并被要求和以前一样坐在同一航站楼。面试官回顾了杰森’的工作,并评论说他没有输入太多文字,实际上甚至没有完成一页。但是,他也没有犯很多错误。“Do you read Russian?”问面试官。杰森回答了一个简单的“No.”  “你可以从星期一开始吗?” was the interviewer’意外的下一个问题。杰森惊讶地回应“Yes!”

杰森(Jason)在上班的第一天,由于艰苦的狩猎和啄啄运动而有些疲倦。但是到了一周结束时,他开始知道大多数字母的键盘位置。在两个月末,Jason成为本周的雇员,打字速度和准确性都比其他任何刚开始的人都要快。在与其他也在计算机室工作的学生交谈时,他了解到他们中没有人会讲俄语或会说俄语,但由于他们在面试中的打字准确性而被录用。次年秋天,他转学到新学校,辞职。有人告诉他,他的才华会被错过。

在他从他的一位朋友那里得知俄罗斯机构被关闭后不久,该机构的成立是为了向俄罗斯发送机密政治文件。杰森“played”俄国打字机在保持俄罗斯文盲的同时要比平均水平更好。

How does this compare to the way many of us were taught to read 音乐 through playing an instrument? 当您在该空间中看到该点时,请按此键。这个点…….press this key.  It is slow at first but with practice, we gain familiarity with the location of the keys for each symbol.  In time, our reading 和 playing proficiency progresses.  Does this mean you have become 音乐ally literate?  When looking at a printed piece of 音乐, can you tell what the 音乐 sounds like without the instrument to interpret?  Why do so many choral directors spend their summer months at a keyboard, “playing through” prospective choral literature? Could it be because they aren’t able to read 和 hear the 音乐 without the aid of a keyboard interpreter?

True 音乐 literacy is often misunderstood.  The ability to identify “letter names” i.e., F, A, C, E, D#, or Bb etc., when looking at notes on a staff 和 press the corresponding keys on an instrument should not be confused with true 音乐 literacy.  Identifying ∆ as “delta” or ∑ as “sigma”或知道这些符号在键盘上的位置使人们无法理解这些单词的含义。“letter names” or instrumental fingerings ensures an understanding of the 音乐al meaning of those tones.

When one becomes truly 音乐ally literate the playing of an instrument becomes a natural extension of one’s personal 音乐ianship. The development of true 音乐 literacy prior to instrumental instruction will enable instrumentalists to express 音乐 through their instrument rather than using the instrument to hear the 音乐.

 

We should not allow anyone even to go near an instrument until he or she can read 和 唱 correctly.  This is our only hope that one day our 音乐ians will be able to “sing”在他们的乐器上。   [1]

 

True 音乐 literacy develops the ability to hear what is seen 和 see what is heard.  This is not a recent insight. The sequential development of skills which allows for true 音乐 literacy has been explored as far back as Guido d’11世纪的阿雷佐。其他听觉和听觉的历史倡导者包括洛厄尔·梅森(Lowell Mason),莎拉·格洛弗(Sarah Glover),约翰·柯文(John Curwen),弗里茨·约德(FritzJöde),萨迪斯·吉丁斯(Thaddeus Giddings),以及后来的佐丹·柯达(ZoltanKodály),埃德温·戈登(Edwin Gordon)及其学生。

 

准备扫盲

During the first five years of life we are busy making aural sense out of the complex labyrinth of language.  After achieving a certain level of 对话式的 competence we enter school 和 begin a structured reading 和 writing curriculum. A similar process takes place when one studies a foreign language first at a 对话式的 level.  The development of ear comprehension precedes reading, writing or grammatical structure education.  These models of learning can be applied to the development of 音乐 literacy.

Before embarking on a 音乐 literacy program, readiness skills must be in place.  The higher the 音乐al goals the more secure the foundation must be.  小孩儿 can begin a literacy program at a very early age but should they? If the goal is to achieve reading comprehension beyond basic levels it is better to invest the time in foundation building than to begin construction of reading skills too soon.

在建造芝加哥的西尔斯大厦(Sears Tower)时,经过一月的时间才建成一楼。在此期间,创建了一个可支持104个故事的基金会。要实现这样的最终成就,需要仔细计划并花时间来建立基础,以支持良好的建筑。如果目标只是建造几层楼高的建筑物,则地基不需要那么安全。但是在不充分的基础上不可能达到很高的高度。

幼儿园课程的设计者长期以来一直主张将一年用于阅读准备项目。推迟教学阅读技能以建立更强的准备能力不会延迟最终阅读技能;它实际上增强了它们。

 

         合而为一…该计划的一年级学生直到一月份才开始阅读教科书。 [何时]以纯净的声音意识进行锻炼…students rapidly overtook 和 passed children in 控制 groups when they finally got their reading books.[2]

 

Before embarking on a 音乐 literacy program three readiness skills should be in place.

1)      Comfortable 和 accurate 唱ing skills.  (Tuneful)

2)2和3的公制分组中的节拍使您舒适而准确地移动技巧(出色)

3)表达敏感度(巧妙)

 

This third requirement is often overlooked in 音乐 literacy curricula.  One of the mysteries of notation is that the subtleties of expression cannot adequately be represented in 符号。  It is the inherent expressiveness, however, that is the art part of 音乐. What appears in notation is merely the skeleton of the 音乐.  The interpreter of the notation must breath life into the skeleton.  This expressive sensitivity development must be assimilated from good 音乐al models 和 from quality literature that embodies expressiveness. A preschool child who has been read to in an expressive manner will later integrate expression into his/her reading. A child who is sung to in an expressive manner will later 唱 with expression 和 be sensitive to the inherent expressive qualities in 音乐.

 

会话解决:文学课程

对话式解决方案是“听见眼睛的耳朵” axiom. It synthesizes the logical, practical 和 philosophical issues raised by earlier 音乐 literacy advocates while integrating contemporary thinking 和 research.  Merging true 音乐 literacy skills with the conviction that the finest quality 音乐 should be used in the process leads to an exciting 和 effective curriculum.

从哲学的角度来看,会话式视唱觉解是科达利哲学和全语言方法的极大影响,因为它是一门文学驱动的课程。大约在两代人以前,开始阅读文本时就通过一些人为的故事教给孩子们一般的阅读技巧,例如:

 

请参阅提示。参见手套。请参阅提示和手套。看球。提示看到

         球。手套看到球。蒂普和连指手套看到了皮球。

 

全语言倡导通过以下方式发展阅读技能“real literature”。对阅读的热爱不仅仅是一种技巧。通过沉浸在优质文学作品中,对书籍奇迹产生了浓厚的兴趣。阅读不应该仅仅因为能够解码打印页面的快感而教,而是要教隐藏在打印页面表面以下的隐藏消息。这些信息仅埋藏在能真实反映人们和艺术家的悲情的优质文学中。

For generations there has been a subclass of 音乐 literature introduced in general 音乐 classes.  This contrived “school 音乐”是出于各种可以想象的原因而开发的;主题单元,节奏模式,形式结构,音阶通道,对节拍的适用性,米,音调,和声功能或“the kids liked 它。”  会话解决 is built on the natural folk 音乐 of people 和 artists rather than artificially contrived “school 音乐.”我们必须确保在学生中培养对只有高质量文学才能体现的微妙表现力的喜爱。佐坦·科达利(Zoltan Kodaly)经常写关于人为做作的浅薄“school 音乐”在整个20世纪中叶,匈牙利的学校中都渗透着这种文化。

 

So by communicating only inferior 音乐, the schools cut off the way to a higher development of the 音乐al sense.  In the name of good taste 和 of the Hungarian spirit alike, school literature generally used today must be protested against. I include in this the greater part of unison school songs, too. Some writers of textbooks consider Hungarian children idiotic by tutoring them with such little verses 和 songs as could be improvised much better by any sound child given the chance.[3]

 

在另一个演讲中,Kodaly说:

 

         It is not advisable to peruse (these) collections.  At first one laughs, than one becomes annoyed 和 finally one despairs 和 cannot imagine that in a country where such things are printed 和 even sung aloud, there may still be room for anything better. And what about the masses for whom this remains their only 音乐?  Can we be surprised if, by the time they grow up, they cannot get further than the 音乐 of the trashiest hit?[4]

 

Most 音乐 educators are aware that Kodály considered folk 音乐 to be a good source of quality 音乐. But he also cautioned, however, there is much second rate 音乐 masquerading as folk 音乐.

 

         但是没有什么比扭曲的匈牙利民歌有害。这个孩子会变得无聊,实际上,在认识真正的匈牙利人之前,他会讨厌表面上的匈牙利人性格外向的陷阱。填满孩子是最大的罪行’那种灵魂,而不是传统歌​​曲。[5]

 

Kodály was equally concerned that children have the opportunity to experience exemplary composed 音乐, both historical 和 contemporary examples. But, again, he cautioned against composed children’s 音乐 that was childish rather than child-like.

 

         …但是艺术上的不良品味确实是心灵的疾病…没有一个人比孩子本能地更喜欢纯艺术,因为年轻人在他们的心中认识到,每位伟大的艺术家中都有一个孩子的生存空间。的确,迷信应该被完全扭转。只有最好的艺术对孩子足够好,其他任何事情只会伤害他们。[6]

 

Kodály was greatly concerned about the inferior quality of composed 音乐 that was frequently used in 音乐 education classrooms.

 

         没有人会禁止创作旋律-如果他将旋律保留给自己。但是,如果有人利用其官方职位的权威来传播他毫无用处的垃圾呢?[7]

 

         但是,如果仍然需要一些新的东西,请让他们由有才华和合格的作曲家来撰写-其中很多。[8]

 

         没有人能为小孩子而写;的确,他必须尽力使他们变得足够出色。[9]

 

音乐素养“Naturally”

A literature driven curriculum requires the first priority to be the assembly of excellent 音乐al materials including authentic 音乐 of a society 和 the 音乐 of artists. Early in the twentieth century Kodály 和 Bela Bartok spent decades collecting, analyzing 和 cataloguing Hungarian folk 音乐 prior to the organization of that 音乐 into a sequence of instruction.

整理材料后,出现了一系列说明,将歌曲从简单到复杂进行了排序。从哪里开始取决于所搜集的文学作品中最简单的节奏和音调模式,米和音调的发现。

If patterns, meters 和 tonalities occur frequently in the indigenous  music of a society 和 the 音乐 of artists of that society then they represent 音乐al characteristics that are most natural to a society. If patterns, meters 和 tonalities occur less frequently, they must be less natural.  A literature driven curriculum presents 音乐al materials from the familiar to the unfamiliar; from the most common elements to the least common elements; from the simple to the complex.  In France, Kodály curricula often begin with the “低至“做”的模式,在日本,许多Kodály课程以“重新,做,低拉,模式。”

Using the Hungarian model, the finest quality songs of our country, our ancestors, 和 the 音乐 of artists were collected, analyzed 和 ordered from simple to complex.  The analysis of the song content from our country resulted in the need for a different sequence from the one the Hungarians created which reflected rhythmic 和 melodic characteristics of their country’s 音乐.  会话解决 begins with simple rhythm patterns in 2/4 和 6/8 和 “do re mi” as there is an abundance of “natural 音乐” to suggest this is a natural place to start with citizens of the United States.  Other cultures should likewise invest in a thorough investigation of their people’s indigenous 音乐 和 create a sequence of instruction that reflects their common patterns, meters 和 tonalities. A literature driven curriculum should reflect the natural 音乐al characteristics 和 emotions of a given society.

 

音乐素养技能的培养过程 

附带图片的经验,即使涉及看图画书和学习新单词时,也没有价值(如通过耳朵学习),因为孩子需要学习“早点,而不是晚点”,而不仅仅是命名可以可见。 附带图片的语言所产生的大脑组织不同于只能通过耳朵处理的语言。 不管是什么原因,研究表明,仔细地进行分析性聆听的早期经验可以极大地改善听觉处理,听力理解能力,进而提高阅读能力–即使是遗传性弱点的孩子。 除非成人社区决定帮助我们将这些成长中的大脑包裹在语言,思考和思想的心理衣饰中,否则我担心我们将继续看到越来越多的儿童被归类为“教育病”。 [10]

 

Developing 音乐 literacy should follow much the same process we follow when we naturally develop our own speaking, reading 和 writing skills.  In learning one’s own language there are five or six years in which language skills are developed by ear before the reading 和/or writing of language is introduced.  This natural process enables one to instinctively communicate verbally with words 和 later, after learning to read, learn to write those thoughts. While 会话解决 does not suggest the first five or six years of 音乐 instruction should be only by ear it does recommend that “conversational” skills with rhythm syllables 和 solfege syllables should be developed prior to the introduction of reading 和 writing 音乐.

Conversational foreign languages are developed with the same premise.  Students of Conversational French develop an ever-increasing spoken vocabulary without the introduction of reading or writing skills.  Words are introduced aurally by rote.  After sufficient repetition students are asked to recall the words 和 gradually rearrange the words to express themselves. We learn thousands of words before we come to school.  And then one day we are taught there is a way you can see language; it’s called the alphabet. We should learn to understand 音乐 first by ear through rhythm 和 solfege syllables 和 then learn there is a way to see those syllables; it’s called 符号。 In our own language, in studying foreign languages, 和 in learning 音乐, only after 对话式的 skills are in place should we study of reading 和 writing of what we know by ear.

也许是因为Kodaly’s first area of expertise was linguistics, he also advocated, as in language development, that the 音乐al ear should be developed before the eye.

But the 唱er first understands the meaning of the sound 和 learns the symbols later, which he then understands better.[11]

会话解决 borrows from these language models 和 develops  音乐 literacy skills through a 12 stage process culminating in ones’ ability to write original 音乐 thoughts (compose).  Beginning with the simplest rhythm 和 tonal patterns each stage introduces a new level of understanding while building upon the previous understandings.  Gradually, expanded rhythm 和 通过相同的12个阶段学习音调内容。

会话式偿债能力的十二个阶段似乎特别适合于学习听觉艺术。音乐。学会通过耳朵来理解音乐,然后通过阅读和写作来确保耳朵和音乐头脑在音乐思想的处理中起着积极的作用。它可以确保通过音乐的声音操纵而不是仅仅通过符号的操纵来理解和创作音乐。符号的操纵并不一定引起音乐思维;而声音的操纵则追求着理想的目标。“music”不是在打印页面上找到的符号,而是到达耳朵的声音。在大多数欧洲国家,“music”不参考印刷副本。无法看到音乐…只能听到。打印的副本称为“notation.”  Notation is the skeleton of 音乐.   We must breathe life into the skeleton to make 音乐.

以下对会话解决的十二个阶段的描述允许“music”在结合到“notation.”

 

阶段1:准备

死记硬背

死记硬背学歌和押韵。它们包含节奏和/或音调内容,稍后将进行研究。在此阶段不使用节奏和音节音节。

 

第2阶段:会话解决

死记硬背

介绍了节奏音节和/或音调音节。老师会用节奏或音调的音节说出或演唱一些模式,而学生则死记硬背地用这些音节重复这些模式。在此阶段,学生将节奏和音调的声音与听觉标签联系在一起。

 

阶段3:会话解决

解码– Familiar

This stage serves as an evaluation to see if students have bonded rhythm 和/or tonal patterns with the correct syllables.  The teacher speaks or 唱s familiar patterns, songs 和 rhymes with neutral syllables or texts. The students repeat the patterns, songs 和 rhymes using rhythm or tonal syllables. Patterns used at this stage have previously been presented with syllables during the 会话解决-Rote stage. Songs 和 rhymes used at this stage should have previously been presented by rote during the Readiness stage.  This stage only requires students to aurally recognize 和 decode previously learned 音乐al examples.

 

阶段4:会话解决

解码– Unfamiliar

在此阶段,您可以评估学生是否已经将节奏和/或音调模式与正确的音节结合在一起,从而在解码不熟悉的音节,歌曲和韵律时足够使用正确的音节。老师讲或唱歌一个不熟悉的中性音节,以及不熟悉的歌曲和韵律与文本;学生用节奏或音调重复该模式,歌曲和韵律。以前尚未了解此阶段使用的样式,歌曲和押韵。这个阶段要求学生从新知识中总结出他们所知道的有意义的东西。

 

阶段5:会话解决

创造

This stage develops the ability to think 和 bring 音乐al meaning to original 音乐al thoughts.  Students create original rhythm or tonal patterns or melodies using rhythm or tonal syllables.  Reading notation should not be introduced until students have achieved success at this stage.  During this stage students begin developing improvisation skills which will enable them to later compose during the Writing-Create stage.

 

阶段6:阅读

死记硬背

During this stage students are introduced to notation symbols.  The teacher reads notated patterns for the students. The students repeat the pattern while looking at the 符号。  This is much like the introduction of a set of vocabulary words in the elementary grades. While looking at the new words the teacher speaks each word 和 the children repeat.

 

阶段7:阅读

解码– Familiar

在此阶段,您可以评估学生是否将节奏和/或音调模式的符号与正确的音节结合在一起。老师要求学生思考带有节奏或音调音节的记号模式,歌曲和韵律,然后使用节奏或音调音节大声说话或唱歌。此阶段使用的样式,歌曲和押韵应该已经呈现过。这个阶段要求学生视觉上回忆以前介绍的材料的声音和音节名称。在学习一般阅读技能时,这类似于学生能够阅读老师先前介绍的词汇。

 

阶段8:阅读

解码– Unfamiliar

在此阶段,您可以评估学生是否已将节奏和/或音调模式的注释与正确的音节结合起来,并将该知识概括为不熟悉的模式,歌曲和韵律。老师要求学生思考不熟悉的带有节奏或音调音节的记号模式,歌曲和韵律,然后使用节奏或音调音节大声说话或唱歌。以前没有介绍过此阶段使用的样式,歌曲和押韵。这需要视觉解码技巧和推理思维。这个阶段代表了真正的视听技能,类似于学生能够在新故事的背景下识别他们的新词汇。

 

阶段9:写作

死记硬背

During this stage students practice writing 符号。  Students should copy existing patterns, songs 和 rhymes 和 be instructed in proper manuscript techniques.  这类似于早期的小学生练习笔法,因为他们学会写字母,数字和单词。

 

阶段10:写作

解码– Familiar

During this stage students engage both 对话式的 decoding skills 和 writing decoding skills.  The teacher speaks, 唱s or plays familiar patterns or phrases from a song or rhyme with neutral syllables or the text.  Students think each pattern with rhythm or tonal syllables (Conversational –解码),然后为模式编写符号(写解码)。这个阶段需要听觉和视觉解码,而不需要推理思维。这个阶段类似于学生根据最新词汇表进行拼写测试。

 

阶段11:写作

解码– Unfamiliar

During this stage students engage both 对话式的 decoding skills 和 writing decoding skills.  The teacher speaks, 唱s or plays unfamiliar patterns or phrases from a song or rhyme with neutral syllables or the text.  Students think the pattern with rhythm or tonal syllables (Conversational –解码),然后编写模式(写解码)。这个阶段需要听觉和视觉解码以及推理思维。如果可以与音节一起唱歌,则可以编写。音节告诉你写什么。这个阶段通常被理解为“taking dictation.”在语言发展中,这一阶段相当于孩子们通过以下方式确定一个陌生单词的拼写和书写:“sounding it out.”

 

阶段12:写作

创造

This skill requires students to 对话式的ly 创造 through inner hearing 和 then Writing-Decode by transferring their 音乐al thoughts into 符号。  Musical improvisations can now become compositions.

 

通过以下方式发展识字技能“Music Art”

An individual is considered literate when he/she can read new material with expression 和 write his/her thoughts.  When an individual is truly 音乐ally literate he/she can expressively read new 音乐al material without the aid of an instrument 和 can write his/her own 音乐al thoughts. Developing 音乐 literacy skills with quality literature enables students to develop the skills to hear, read 和 write 音乐 while introducing them to the rich repertoire of our cultures expressive 音乐 as well as exemplary composed pieces.  With these skills 和 音乐al influences we may just inspire a new generation of citizens who will be able to not only read 和 write 音乐 but be able to understand 和 appreciate the subtle expressions of 音乐 that are embodied below the surface in art.


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